A parish was led by elders and centred around a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts.
By the 13th century Estonia consisted of eight major counties: Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Läänemaa, Revala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, and Virumaa; and six minor, single-parish counties: Alempois, Jogentagana, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Soopoolitse, and Vaiga.
During World War II, Estonia suffered successive occupations by Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Union again, resulting in its annexation as the Estonian SSR.Similar threats appeared in the east, where Russian principalities were expanding westward.In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise defeated Estonians and established a fort in modern-day Tartu; this foothold lasted until an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it in 1061, followed by their raid on Pskov.Please consider converting them to full citations to ensure the article remains verifiable and maintains a consistent citation style.Several templates and the re Fill tool are available to assist in formatting.(16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate.Ethnic Estonians – the largest ethnic group in the country – are a Finnic people.One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania (ca. The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric.The geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being farther south.According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago.The earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia.