However, this theory has been challenged, in the opinion of many archaeologists, by several archaeological discoveries, including sites such as Cactus Hill in Virginia, Paisley Caves in the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, the Topper site in Allendale County, South Carolina, Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, the Friedkin The oldest claimed human archaeological site in the Americas is the Pedra Furada hearths, a site in Brazil that precedes the Clovis culture and the other sites already mentioned by 19,000 to 30,000 years.This claim has become an issue of contention between North American archaeologists and their South American and European counterparts, who disagree on whether it is conclusively proven to be an older human site.The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. It appears around 11,500–11,000 uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools.Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest this radiocarbon age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago.The site was first excavated in 1926, near Folsom, New Mexico, under the direction of Harold Cook and Jesse Figgins.On August 29, 1927, they found the first in situ Folsom point with the extinct B. This confirmation of a human presence in the Americas during the Pleistocene inspired many people to start looking for evidence of early humans.This appears to have been triggered by a vast amount of meltwater – possibly from Lake Agassiz – emptying into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline circulation.
The culture is named after artifacts found between 19 at Blackwater Locality No.
Howard's crew left their excavation in Burnet Cave, New Mexico, (the first truly professionally excavated Clovis site) in August, 1932, and visited Whiteman and his Blackwater Draw site.
By November, Howard was back at Blackwater Draw to investigate additional finds from a construction project.
Clovis people are generally accepted to have hunted mammoths as well as extinct bison, mastodon, gomphotheres, sloths, tapir, camelops, horse and other smaller animals.
More than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have been used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited.